В няколко поредни статии ви запознаваме с различни ръководства за изпита по английски език в британски университети. Ето и третия вариант:
Друг вид тест по английски език е тестът ELPT. Той е разработен, за да оцени вашето ниво на английски за целите на академично обучение. Тестът се състои от четири раздела, като ще получите оценка за всеки един от тях, както и цялостна оценка.
Целта на тези материали тук е да ви помогнат да се подгответе за теста. Съветваме ви да им отделите известно време и да се опитате да отговорите на въпросите, преди да се явите на самия тест.
ELPT се състои от следните раздели:
Четене: За този раздел ще получите въпросник, съдържащ два текста. От вас се очаква да покажете, че разбирате съдържанието на тези текстове, като отговорите на няколко въпроса свързани с тях. За първия текст ще имате 10 въпроса, а за втория – 20. Въпросите са от различно естество. Време за отговор: 50 минути
Ще намерите някои примерни практически въпроси (и отговорите им) по-долу.
Слушане: В теста ще изслушате три кратки записа (които може да включват общи разговори, лекции и т.н.) и ще се очаква да покажете дали сте разбрали за какво става въпрос като отговорите на пет въпроса след всеки един от тях. Първият запис се възпроизвежда само веднъж, вторият и третият запис се възпроизвеждат два пъти. Въпросите са от различен тип. Време за отговор: 40 минути
Ще намерите някои примерни практически въпроси (и отговорите им), заедно със скриптовете на записите, по-долу.
Писане: В тази част от теста трябва да напишете кратко есе на определена тема, използвайки 250-350 думи. Препоръчително е да отделите около 10 минути в които да решите какво ще пишете и как ще го структурирате. Опитайте се да организирате идеите си в параграфи. Целта е да завършите есето си най-малко 5 минути преди края на теста, за да ви остане време да проверите за грешки при правопис, граматиката и пунктуацията. Допустимо време: 50 минути
Ще намерите някои примерни въпроси за есе по-долу. Помислете как можете да отговорите на тези въпроси и се опитайте да напишете есе по дадената тема. След като се опитате да го направите сами, разгледайте отговора на модела и го сравнете с Вашия.
Говорене: Тук ще имате кратко индивидуално интервю с проверяващия, по време на което се очаква да говорите за редица теми, които могат да включват подробности за вашето образование, вашата родна страна и вашите бъдещи планове. Допустимо време: 10 минути
ПОДГОТОВКА ЗА ВАШЕТО ИНТЕРВЮ В УНИВЕРСИТЕТА
1) Защо “този” курс?
Както при всички университетски интервюта, ще бъдете попитани защо сте кандидатствали за курса, който сте избрали. Ако предварително сте проучили учебната програма, това е вашият шанс да блеснете и впечатли интервюиращия, демонстрирайки твърдото ви разбиране за учебната програма и структура. Освен това интервюиращите ще искат да разберат повече за вас самите. Кои аспекти на курса смятате за най-подходящи за вас и защо.
2) Защо точно този университет?
Интервюиращите също ще искат да разберат защо сте избрали именно този пред други университети. Това отново е отлична възможност да покажете на интервюиращия, че имате
солидни познания за конкретното учебно заведение. Опитайте се да дадете примери за това, което този университет може да ви предложи, което другите не са в състояние.
3) Предишно образование / квалификации
Опитайте се да използвате предишните си академични квалификации. Например, ако понастоящем изучавате нещо, свързано с избрания курс или пък ако на предишната работа сте придобили съответната квалификация. Това са примери, които могат да подкрепят вашите аргументи за това защо сте избрали точно този курс.
4) Вашата автобиография и личен опит
Добре е да познавате своята автобиография в детайли. Вашият интервюиращ ще иска да разбере повече за личния ви опит. Не забравяйте да донесете академични документи, които са били поискани от екипа по приема.
5) Живот след университета
Въпреки че става въпрос за далечното бъдеще, интервюиращите ще искат да научат повече за вашата мотивация за придобиване на образование в дадения университет. Помислете за това какво очаквате да е бъдещето ви развитие след завършване на курса и как той ще ви помогне да увеличите перспективите си за кариера.
- Пробните интервюта са чудесна форма на подготовка. Помолете приятели / роднини да ви зададат някои потенциални въпроси, така че да сте подготвени за тях, ако възникнат в реалните интервюта.
- Бъдете себе си и се опитайте да се отпуснете. Интервюиращите искат да видят човек, който е ентусиазиран и мотивиран за бъдещия курс. Не забравяйте, че интервюто е също така възможност за вас да разберете дали това е вашият университет.
- Отидете на интервюто 15 минути по-рано. Ако закъснеете, това ще направи лошо впечатление на интервюиращите, тъй като те очакват от вас да сте точни и за лекциите и упражненията. В случай че бъдете възпрепятствани и не можете да се явите на интервюто, информирайте университета колкото е възможно по-скоро. Ако пропуснете две интервюта ще загубите шанса си за прием.
- Отидете подготвени с предварително подбрани въпроси относно университета / курса, които да зададете на интервюиращия.
ELPT Подготвителен материал: Задача за слушане 1
Скрипт на записа за слушане 1
(A customer has been arranging with a shipping agent to send a large box overseas. This is the last part of the conversation.)
(Клиент е уредил с агент за доставка да изпрати голям колет в чужбина. Това е последната част от разговора.)
A OK right. Now obviously insurance is an important thing to consider and our companies are able to offer very good rates in a number of different all-inclusive packages.
B Sorry, could you explain a bit more?
A Yes, sorry, um. There’s really three rates according to quality of insurance cover – there’s the highest comprehensive cover which is Premium rate, then there’s standard rate and then there’s economy rate. That one will only cover the cost of the contents second hand.
B Oh I’ve been stung before with economy insurance so I’ll go for the highest.
A Mh’hm and can I just check would you want home delivery or to a local depot or would you want to pick it up at the nearest port?
B The port’d be fine – I’ve got transport that end.
A Fine and will you be paying by credit card?
B Can I pay by cheque?
ELPT Подготвителен материал: Задача за слушане 2
Скрипт на записите за слушане 2
(Two friends, Rachel and Paul, are discussing studying with the Open University. Rachel has already done a course at the university, but Paul has not. The extract relating to these questions comes from the last part of the recording.)
(Двама приятели, Рейчъл и Пол, обсъждат обучение в Open University. Рейчъл вече е минала курс в университета, но Пол не е. Откъсът, свързан с тези въпроси, идва от последната част на записа.)
Paul The other thing I wanted to ask you was, did you find it hard, studying with the Open University?
Rachel You mean, because you’re studying on your own, most of the time?
Rachel Well it took me a while to get used to it. I found I needed to maintain a high level of motivation, because it’s so different from school. There’s no-one saying, ‘Why haven’t you written your assignment yet?’ and that sort of thing.
Paul Oh dear.
Rachel You’ll learn it, Paul. Another thing was that I got very good at timemanagement because I had to fit time for studying round a full-time job.
Paul Well I’m hoping to change to working part-time, so that’ll help.
Rachel What makes it easier is that the degree is made up of modules, so you can take time off between them if you need to. It isn’t like a traditional three-or four-year course, where you’ve got to do the whole thing of it in one go.
Paul That’s good, because I’d like to spend six months travelling next year.
Rachel Huh, it’s all right for some. Then even though you’re mostly studying at home, remember you’ve got tutors to help you, and from time to time there are summer schools. They usually last a week. They’re great, because you meet all the other people struggling with the same things as you. I’ve made some really good friends that way.
Paul Sounds good. So how do I apply?
Въпроси по задачата за слушане 1: Множествен избор
Въпроси 1 и 2
Изберете вярната буква, A, B или C.
(Клиент е уредил с агент за доставка да изпрати голям колет в чужбина. Това е последната част от разговора.)
1 Type of insurance chosen
2 Customer wants goods delivered to
Въпроси по задачата за слушане 2: Допълване на изречение
Въпроси 3 – 6
Попълнете изреченията по-долу. Напишете НЕ ПОВЕЧЕ ОТ ДВЕ ДУМИ за всеки отговор.
(Двама приятели, Рейчъл и Пол, обсъждат обучение в Open University. Рейчъл вече е минала курс в университета, но Пол не е.)
Studying with the Open University demanded a great deal of 3 …………………….
Studying and working at the same time improved Rachel’s 4 …………………… skills.
It was helpful that the course was structured in 5 ………………………
She enjoyed meeting other students at 6 …………………….
6 summer school(s)
Източник: Cambridge English IELTS sample papers
ELPT Подготвителен материал: Задача за четене 1
[Забележка: Това е откъс от пасаж “Академично четене” по темата за държавни субсидии за земеделските стопани. Текстът, предхождащ този откъс, обяснява как субсидиите могат да доведат до действия, които причиняват необратими промени за околната среда.]
All these activities may have damaging environmental impacts. For example, land clearing for agriculture is the largest single cause of deforestation; chemical fertilisers and pesticides may contaminate water supplies; more intensive farming and the abandonment of fallow periods tend to exacerbate soil erosion; and the spread of monoculture and use of highyielding varieties of crops have been accompanied by the disappearance of old varieties of food plants which might have provided some insurance against pests or diseases in future. Soil erosion threatens the productivity of land in both rich and poor countries. The United States, where the most careful measurements have been done, discovered in 1982 that about one-fifth of its farmland was losing topsoil at a rate likely to diminish the soil’s productivity. The country subsequently embarked upon a program to convert 11 per cent of its cropped land to meadow or forest. Topsoil in India and China is vanishing much faster than in America.
Government policies have frequently compounded the environmental damage that farming can cause. In the rich countries, subsidies for growing crops and price supports for farm output drive up the price of land. The annual value of these subsidies is immense: about $250 billion, or more than all World Bank lending in the 1980s. To increase the output of crops per acre, a farmer’s easiest option is to use more of the most readily available inputs: fertilisers and pesticides. Fertiliser use doubled in Denmark in the period 1960-1985 and increased in The Netherlands by 150 per cent. The quantity of pesticides applied has risen too: by 69 per cent in 1975-1984 in Denmark, for example, with a rise of 115 per cent in the frequency of application in the three years from 1981.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s some efforts were made to reduce farm subsidies. The most dramatic example was that of New Zealand, which scrapped most farm support in 1984. A study of the environmental effects, conducted in 1993, found that the end of fertiliser subsidies had been followed by a fall in fertiliser use (a fall compounded by the decline in world commodity prices, which cut farm incomes). The removal of subsidies also stopped land-clearing and over-stocking, which in the past had been the principal causes of erosion. Farms began to diversify. The one kind of subsidy whose removal appeared to have been bad for the environment was the subsidy to manage soil erosion.
In less enlightened countries, and in the European Union, the trend has been to reduce rather than eliminate subsidies, and to introduce new payments to encourage farmers to treat their land in environmentally friendlier ways, or to leave it fallow. It may sound strange but such payments need to be higher than the existing incentives for farmers to grow food crops. Farmers, however, dislike being paid to do nothing. In several countries they have become interested in the possibility of using fuel produced from crop residues either as a replacement for petrol (as ethanol) or as fuel for power stations (as biomass). Such fuels produce far less carbon dioxide than coal or oil, and absorb carbon dioxide as they grow. They are therefore less likely to contribute to the greenhouse effect. But they are rarely competitive with fossil fuels unless subsidised – and growing them does no less environmental harm than other crops.
Въпроси по задачата за четене 1
Въпроси 1 – 3
Изберете подходящите букви A, B, C или D. Напишете своите отговори в графи 1-3 на листа за отговор.
1 Research completed in 1982 found that in the United States soil erosion
A reduced the productivity of farmland by 20 per cent.
B was almost as severe as in India and China.
C was causing significant damage to 20 per cent of farmland.
D could be reduced by converting cultivated land to meadow or forest.
2 By the mid-1980s, farmers in Denmark
A used 50 per cent less fertiliser than Dutch farmers.
B used twice as much fertiliser as they had in 1960.
C applied fertiliser much more frequently than in 1960.
D more than doubled the amount of pesticide they used in just 3 years.
3 Which one of the following increased in New Zealand after 1984?
A farm incomes
B use of fertiliser
D farm diversification
ELPT Подготвителен материал: Задача за четене 2
The Risk of Cigarette Smoke
Discovered in the early 1800s and named ‘nicotianine’, the oily essence now called nicotine is the main active ingredient of tobacco. Nicotine, however, is only a small component of cigarette smoke, which contains more than 4,700 chemical compounds, including 43 cancer-causing substances. In recent times, scientific research has been providing evidence that years of cigarette smoking vastly increases the risk of developing fatal medical conditions.
In addition to being responsible for more than 85 per cent of lung cancers, smoking is associated with cancers of, amongst others, the mouth, stomach and kidneys, and is thought to cause about 14 per cent of leukemia and cervical cancers. In 1990, smoking caused more than 84,000 deaths, mainly resulting from such problems as pneumonia, bronchitis and influenza. Smoking, it is believed, is responsible for 30 per cent of all deaths from cancer and clearly represents the most important preventable cause of cancer in countries like the United States today.
Passive smoking, the breathing in of the side-stream smoke from the burning of tobacco between puffs or of the smoke exhaled by a smoker, also causes a serious health risk. A report published in 1992 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emphasized the health dangers, especially from side-stream smoke. This type of smoke contains more smaller particles and is therefore more likely to be deposited deep in the lungs. On the basis of this report, the EPA has classified environmental tobacco smoke in the highest risk category for causing cancer.
As an illustration of the health risks, in the case of a married couple where one partner is a smoker and one a non-smoker, the latter is believed to have a 30 per cent higher risk of death from heart disease because of passive smoking. The risk of lung cancer also increases over the years of exposure and the figure jumps to 80 per cent if the spouse has been smoking four packs a day for 20 years. It has been calculated that 17 per cent of cases of lung cancer can be attributed to high levels of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke during childhood and adolescence.
A more recent study by researchers at the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) has shown that second-hand cigarette smoke does more harm to non-smokers than to smokers. Leaving aside the philosophical question of whether anyone should have to breathe someone else’s cigarette smoke, the report suggests that the smoke experienced by many people in their daily lives is enough to produce substantial adverse effects on a person’s heart and lungs.
The report, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (AMA), was based on the researchers’ own earlier research but also includes a review of studies over the past few years. The American Medical Association represents about half of all US doctors and is a strong opponent of smoking. The study suggests that people who smoke cigarettes are continually damaging their cardiovascular system, which adapts in order to compensate for the effects of smoking. It further states that people who do not smoke do not have the benefit of their system adapting to the smoke inhalation. Consequently, the effects of passive smoking are far greater on non-smokers than on smokers.
This report emphasizes that cancer is not caused by a single element in cigarette smoke; harmful effects to health are caused by many components. Carbon monoxide, for example, competes with oxygen in red blood cells and interferes with the blood’s ability to deliver life-giving oxygen to the heart. Nicotine and other toxins in cigarette smoke activate small blood cells called platelets, which increases the likelihood of blood clots, thereby affecting blood circulation throughout the body.
The researchers criticize the practice of some scientific consultants who work with the tobacco industry for assuming that cigarette smoke has the same impact on smokers as it does on non-smokers. They argue that those scientists are underestimating the damage done by passive smoking and, in support of their recent findings, cite some previous research which points to passive smoking as the cause for between 30,000 and 60,000 deaths from heart attacks each year in the United States. This means that passive smoking is the third most preventable cause of death after active smoking and alcohol-related diseases.
The study argues that the type of action needed against passive smoking should be similar to that being taken against illegal drugs and AIDS (SIDA). The UCSF researchers maintain that the simplest and most cost-effective action is to establish smoke-free work places, schools and public places.
Въпроси по задачата за четене 2
Въпроси 4 – 7
Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in the reading passage?
Напишете вашите отговори в графи 4-7 на листа за отговор
YES if the statement reflects the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
4 Thirty per cent of deaths in the United States are caused by smoking-related diseases.
5 If one partner in a marriage smokes, the other is likely to take up smoking.
6 Teenagers whose parents smoke are at risk of getting lung cancer at some time during their lives.
7 Opponents of smoking financed the UCSF study.
ELPT Подготвителен материал: Задача за четене 3
[Забележка: Това е откъс от пасаж “Академично четене” за развитието на ракетите. Текстът, предшестващ този откъс, изследва бавното развитие на ракетата и обяснява принципа за задвижване.]
The invention of rockets is linked inextricably with the invention of ‘black powder’. Most historians of technology credit the Chinese with its discovery. They base their belief on studies of Chinese writings or on the notebooks of early Europeans who settled in or made long visits to China to study its history and civilisation. It is probable that, some time in the tenth century, black powder was first compounded from its basic ingredients of saltpetre, charcoal and sulphur. But this does not mean that it was immediately used to propel rockets. By the thirteenth century, powderpropelled fire arrows had become rather common. The Chinese relied on this type of technological development to produce incendiary projectiles of many sorts, explosive grenades and possibly cannons to repel their enemies. One such weapon was the ‘basket of fire’ or, as directly translated from Chinese, the ‘arrows like flying leopards’. The 0.7 metre-long arrows, each with a long tube of gunpowder attached near the point of each arrow, could be fired from a long, octagonal-shaped basket at the same time and had a range of 400 paces. Another weapon was the ‘arrow as a flying sabre’, which could be fired from crossbows. The rocket, placed in a similar position to other rocket-propelled arrows, was designed to increase the range. A small iron weight was attached to the 1.5m bamboo shaft, just below the feathers, to increase the arrow’s stability by moving the centre of gravity to a position below the rocket. At a similar time, the Arabs had developed the ‘egg which moves and burns’. This ‘egg’ was apparently full of gunpowder and stabilised by a 1.5m tail. It was fired using two rockets attached to either side of this tail.
It was not until the eighteenth century that Europe became seriously interested in the possibilities of using the rocket itself as a weapon of war and not just to propel other weapons. Prior to this, rockets were used only in pyrotechnic displays. The incentive for the more aggressive use of rockets came not from within the European continent but from far-away India, whose leaders had built up a corps of rocketeers and used rockets successfully against the British in the late eighteenth century. The Indian rockets used against the British were described by a British Captain serving in India as ‘an iron envelope about 200 millimetres long and 40 millimetres in diameter with sharp points at the top and a 3m-long bamboo guiding stick’. In the early nineteenth century the British began to experiment with incendiary barrage rockets. The British rocket differed from the Indian version in that it was completely encased in a stout, iron cylinder, terminating in a conical head, measuring one metre in diameter and having a stick almost five metres long and constructed in such a way that it could be firmly attached to the body of the rocket. The Americans developed a rocket, complete with its own launcher, to use against the Mexicans in the mid-nineteenth century. A long cylindrical tube was propped up by two sticks and fastened to the top of the launcher, thereby allowing the rockets to be inserted and lit from the other end. However, the results were sometimes not that impressive as the behaviour of the rockets in flight was less than predictable.
Въпроси по задачата за четене 3
Въпроси 8 – 11
Погледнете следващите въпроси (8-11) и списъка от букви по-долу. Свържете всяка цифра със съответстващата и буква (кой пръв е изобретил или използвал съответното средство).
* Може да използвате която и да е буква повече от веднъж.
8 black powder
9 rocket-propelled arrows for fighting
10 rockets as war weapons
11 the rocket launcher
First invented or used by
А the Chinese
B the Indians
C the British
D the Arabs
E the Americans
Въпроси по задачата за четене 4
Въпроси 12 – 16
Изберете правилната позиция за секции A-D и F от списъка със заглавия по-долу. Въведете правилния номер i-ix в полетата 12-16 на листа с отговори.
i The probable effects of the new international trade agreement
ii The environmental impact of modern farming
iii Farming and soil erosion
iv The effects of government policy in rich countries
v Governments and management of the environment
vi The effects of government policy in poor countries
vii Farming and food output
viii The effects of government policy on food output
ix The new prospects for world trade
12 Section A
13 Section B
14 Section C
15 Section D
16 Section E
17 Section F
The role of governments in environmental management is difficult but inescapable. Sometimes, the state tries to manage the resources it owns, and does so badly. Often, however, governments act in an even more harmful way. They actually subsidise the exploitation and consumption of natural resources. A whole range of policies, from farm-price support to protection for coal-mining, do environmental damage and (often) make no economic sense. Scrapping them offers a two-fold bonus: a cleaner environment and a more efficient economy. Growth and environmentalism can actually go hand in hand, if politicians have the courage to confront the vested interest that subsidies create.
No activity affects more of the earth’s surface than farming. It shapes a third of the planet’s land area, not counting Antarctica, and the proportion is rising. World food output per head has risen by 4 per cent between the 1970s and 1980s mainly as a result of increases in yields from land already in cultivation, but also because more land has been brought under the plough. Higher yields have been achieved by increased irrigation, better crop breeding, and a doubling in the use of pesticides and chemical fertilisers in the 1970s and 1980s.
All these activities may have damaging environmental impacts. For example, land clearing for agriculture is the largest single cause of deforestation; chemical fertilisers and pesticides may contaminate water supplies; more intensive farming and the abandonment of fallow periods tend to exacerbate soil erosion; and the spread of monoculture and use of high-yielding varieties of crops have been accompanied by the disappearance of old varieties of food plants which might have provided some insurance against pests or diseases in future. Soil erosion threatens the productivity of land in both rich and poor countries. The United States, where the most careful measurements have been done, discovered in 1982 that about one-fifth of its farmland was losing topsoil at a rate likely to diminish the soil’s productivity. The country subsequently embarked upon a program to convert 11 per cent of its cropped land to meadow or forest. Topsoil in India and China is vanishing much faster than in America.
Government policies have frequently compounded the environmental damage that farming can cause. In the rich countries, subsidies for growing crops and price supports for farm output drive up the price of land. The annual value of these subsidies is immense: about $250 billion, or more than all World Bank lending in the 1980s. To increase the output of crops per acre, a farmer’s easiest option is to use more of the most readily available inputs: fertilisers and pesticides. Fertiliser use doubled in Denmark in the period 1960-1985 and increased in The Netherlands by 150 per cent. The quantity of pesticides applied has risen too: by 69 per cent in 1975-1984 in Denmark, for example, with a rise of 115 per cent in the frequency of application in the three years from 1981. In the late 1980s and early 1990s some efforts were made to reduce farm subsidies. The most dramatic example was that of New Zealand, which scrapped most farm support in 1984. A study of the environmental effects, conducted in 1993, found that the end of fertiliser subsidies had been followed by a fall in fertiliser use (a fall compounded by the decline in world commodity prices, which cut farm incomes). The removal of subsidies also stopped landclearing and over-stocking, which in the past had been the principal causes of erosion. Farms began to diversify. The one kind of subsidy whose removal appeared to have been bad for the environment was the subsidy to manage soil erosion. In less enlightened countries, and in the European Union, the trend has been to reduce rather than eliminate subsidies, and to introduce new payments to encourage farmers to treat their land in environmentally friendlier ways, or to leave it fallow. It may sound strange but such payments need to be higher than the existing incentives for farmers to grow food crops. Farmers, however, dislike being paid to do nothing. In several countries they have become interested in the possibility of using fuel produced from crop residues either as a replacement for petrol (as ethanol) or as fuel for power stations (as biomass). Such fuels produce far less carbon dioxide than coal or oil, and absorb carbon dioxide as they grow. They are therefore less likely to contribute to the greenhouse effect. But they are rarely competitive with fossil fuels unless subsidised – and growing them does no less environmental harm than other crops.
In poor countries, governments aggravate other sorts of damage. Subsidies for pesticides and artificial fertilisers encourage farmers to use greater quantities than are needed to get the highest economic crop yield. A study by the International Rice Research Institute of pesticide use by farmers in South East Asia found that, with pest-resistant varieties of rice, even moderate applications of pesticide frequently cost farmers more than they saved. Such waste puts farmers on a chemical treadmill: bugs and weeds become resistant to poisons, so next year’s poisons must be more lethal. One cost is to human health. Every year some 10,000 people die from pesticide poisoning, almost all of them in the developing countries, and another 400,000 become seriously ill. As for artificial fertilisers, their use world-wide increased by 40 per cent per unit of farmed land between the mid 1970s and late 1980s, mostly in the developing countries. Overuse of fertilisers may cause farmers to stop rotating crops or leaving their land fallow. That, in turn, may make soil erosion worse.
A result of the Uruguay Round of world trade negotiations is likely to be a reduction of 36 per cent in the average levels of farm subsidies paid by the rich countries in 1986-1990. Some of the world’s food production will move from Western Europe to regions where subsidies are lower or non-existent, such as the former communist countries and parts of the developing world. Some environmentalists worry about this outcome. It will undoubtedly mean more pressure to convert natural habitat into farmland. But it will also have many desirable environmental effects. The intensity of farming in the rich world should decline, and the use of chemical inputs will diminish. Crops are more likely to be grown in the environments to which they are naturally suited. And more farmers in poor countries will have the money and the incentive to manage their land in ways that are sustainable in the long run. That is important. To feed an increasingly hungry world, farmers need every incentive to use their soil and water effectively and efficiently.
ELPT Подготвителен материал: Задачи за четене 1-4
5 NOT GIVEN
7 NOT GIVEN
Източник: Cambridge English IELTS sample papers
Пишете по следната тема:
Some people say that the best way to improve public health is by increasing the number of sports facilities. Others, however, say that this would have little effect on public health and that other measures are required.
Напишете поне 250 думи. Разгледайте и двете мнения по въпроса.
Това е един пример за много добър отговор:
A problem of modern societies is the declining level of health in the general population. with conflicting views on how to tackle this worrying trend. One possible solution is to provide more sports facilities to encourage a more active lifestyle.
Advocates of this believe that todays sedentary lifestyle and stressful working conditions mean that physical activity is no longer part of either our work or our leisure time. If there were easy to-reach local sports centres. we would be more likely to make exercise a regular part of our lives, rather than just collapsing in front of a screen every evening, The variety of sports that could be offered would cater for all ages, levels of fitness and interests: those with painful memories of PE at school might be happier in the swimming pool than on the football pitch.
However. there may be better ways of tackling this problem. Interest in sport is not universal. and additional facilities might simply attract the already ht. not those who most need them. Physical activity could be encouraged relatively cheaply. For example by installing exercise equipment in parks. as my local council has done. This has the added benefit that parents and children often use them together just for fun, which develops a positive attitude to exercise at an early age.
As well as physical activity. high tax penalties could be imposed on high fat food products. tobacco and alcohol. as excessive consumption of any of these contributes to poor health. Even improving public transport would help: it takes longer to walk to the bus stop than to the car.
In my opinion, focusing on sports facilities is too narrow an approach and would not have the desired results. People should be encouraged not only to be more physically active but also to adopt a healthier lifestyle in general.
Източник: Cambridge English 2013 Cambridge IELTS 9 Cambridge University Press
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